Does maternal dairy intake during pregnancy affect fetal femur length?

found no association between maternal milk consumption and femur length or estimated fetal length 23. Conclusion: These data suggest that consumption of < 2 servings of dairy products/d by pregnant adolescents may negatively affect fetal bone development by limiting the amount of calcium provided to the fetus. Fetal femur length, ultrasound, adolescents, calcium, dairy products, pregnancy, African Americans.Amongst a mass of evidence in literature, only Chang et al.(14) established the role of milk on growth of femur length of foetus, showing that higher milk intake is related to better growth of femur length of foetus.



What causes short femur in fetus?

In most cases, researchers suspect congenital short femur is caused by a disruption during early prenatal development, which can be caused randomly, or as a result of an outside force such as an infection or trauma.

Does milk make fetus big?

Milk consumption and fetal and birth weight

Maternal milk consumption of >3 glasses (450 mL of milk) per day was associated with greater fetal weight gain in the third trimester of pregnancy, which led to an 88 g higher birth weight than that with milk consumption of 0 to 1 glass per day [156].

What does a short femur on ultrasound mean?

A short femur is defined as a measurement below the 2.5 percentile for gestational age. This finding is typically identified on second trimester prenatal ultrasound, as femur measurements are part of the algorithm for pregnancy dating.

What can affect baby growth during pregnancy?

Growth restriction early in pregnancy (early onset) happens because of chromosome problems in the baby. It also happens because of disease in the mother, or severe problems with the placenta. Growth restriction is called late onset if it happens after week 32 of the pregnancy. It is often linked to other problems.

Does femur length indicate height in pregnancy?

Parental height was positively associated with fetal head circumference and femur length. The associations with paternal height were detectible earlier in gestation (17–29 weeks) compared to the associations with maternal height.

Does maternal nutrition affect fetal growth?

Placental and fetal growth is most vulnerable to maternal nutrition status during the peri-implantation period and the period of rapid placental development (the first trimester of gestation). Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy can impair fetal growth.

What does fetal femur length indicate?

A femur length that is shorter than expected can also be a soft marker for certain genetic conditions, such as trisomy 21 (Down syndrome), trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome), and trisomy 18 (Edward’s syndrome).

Does dairy intake affect fetal femur growth in pregnant adolescents?

Results: In these pregnant adolescents with a mean (± SD) age of 15.9 ± 1.1 y (range: 12.7–17.9 y), dairy intake had a significant positive effect on fetal femur growth after adjustment for gestational age, biparietal diameter, maternal age and height, and prepregnancy body mass index ( P = 0.001, R2 = 0.97).

What factors affect fetal femur length during pregnancy?

Other determinants of fetal femur length. Similarly, an increase of 1 in maternal prepregnancy BMI was associated with a 0.005-cm increase in fetal femur length after control for dairy intake, gestational age, fetal biparietal diameter, maternal age, and maternal height.

Does milk intake affect fetal femur length and infant birth length?

Two prospective studies reported a significant influence of milk intake on fetal femur length or infant birth length, while two prospective studies reported no associations (Table 3).

How does maternal preterm BMI affect fetal femur length?

Similarly, an increase of 1 in maternal prepregnancy BMI was associated with a 0.005-cm increase in fetal femur length after control for dairy intake, gestational age, fetal biparietal diameter, maternal age, and maternal height.

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